The Temple in Jerusalem that stood in Jesus’ time is commonly referred to as Herod’s Temple or the Second Temple. It was a total rebuild and upgrade of the much more modest structure built after Jewish people began to return to their homeland at the end of the Babylonian captivity (Ezra 3). It was completed about 520 BC. Herd began his reconstruction in about 19 BC. Parts of Herod’s structures were still under construction even as Jesus visited it during His ministry (John 2:20-21; Matthew 24:1-2).
There are lots of resources available to help us visualize what this structure and the complex surrounding it probably looked like. These resources are helpful because the Temple was destroyed by the Romans in AD 70 and the current Temple Mount is occupied by an Islamic Mosque and the Islamic Dome of the Rock shrine.